Learn About MALARIA
There was once Malaria in Japan
Malaria is a disease caused by a malaria parasite parasite, which is infected by being bitten by mosquito having malaria parasite. When the female Hamadaraka (Huanma mosquito) carrying the malaria parasite pierces the human body for egg production and suffocates, the malaria parasite invades the body and infects the malaria. There are five types of protozoa causing malaria to humans, Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium falciparum, Egg malaria parasite, Salmonial malaria parasite, but the most threatening to human life is tropical It is a Plasmodium fever and a Plasmodium falciparum. Most common in Africa is Plasmodium falciparum, most of the deaths related to malaria in the world are caused by this protozoa. Most of the countries other than sub-Saharan Africa are predominantly caused by Plasmodium falciparum.
There was once Malaria in Japan
Malaria has long been known as "Okari (瘧)" in Japan, and since the history of Japan, including Rikkaimori, various people have died of diseases that are seen as malaria. Malaria became popular throughout the country from the Meiji period to the early Showa era. When developing the Hokkaido during the Meiji era, it was malaria who robbed many people's lives. In Honshu, mainly in Shiga with Lake Biwa occurred in Fukui, Ishikawa, Aichi, Toyama, but in Fukui more than 9,000 ~ 22,000 patients were reported each year in Taisho era. Malaria became popular among former soldiers who returned from Asia after the war. Also, at the time of World War II, many people lost their lives with malaria due to forced evacuation to malaria occurrence areas, causing a painful situation called "war malaria". After the war malaria prevailed throughout the country, but by taking thorough preventive measures, the number of dead has drastically decreased, the epidemic of the malaria ceased in the 1950s, and at the malaria end memorial tournament in Ishigakijima in 1963, Malaria control will be declared. Currently it is not caused by infection in the country.
It is possible to prevent Malaria
Malaria is a disease that can be prevented and treated. The main way to prevent infection of malaria is to control mediating mosquitoes, but for this purpose, insecticide treatment (ITN. Insecticide is incorporated as soon as mosquitoes touch mosquito nets) And indoor residual effect insecticide spray (IRS). Although there is not vaccination yet, anti-malarial medicine can be used for prevention. When traveling to a malaria endemic area, prevention of antimalarial drugs prevents onset by suppressing malaria infection in the blood. Also, for pregnant women living in areas where there is little infection, we recommend preventive internal use every time during periodic medical examination after the first screening in pregnancy. Similarly, it is recommended that infants living in infectious areas in Africa where infection propagation is intense be administered with preventive doses concurrently with routine immunization.
Early diagnosis and treatment of malaria will reduce disease and prevent death. Especially the best therapy effective for P. falciparum is combined therapy (ACT) based on artemisinin combination therapy. WHO recommends that all cases suspected of malaria be confirmed and confirmed using parasitological examination (microscopic examination or rapid diagnostic test) before administration of therapeutic drugs. Parasitological examination will result within 30 minutes. By receiving appropriate examination and medication within 24 hours after fever, it can prevent severity and death.
Challenge of Drug and Insecticide Resistance
Antimalarial measures have been successful with the extermination of mosquitoes through the past, but in recent years many mosquitoes resistant to many countries have been applied to pyrethroids, which is the only insecticide recommended for use in ITN and LLIN It has appeared. The development of these new mosquito nets is a priority, as the use of two different insecticides in mosquito nets can ease the risk of proliferation of insecticide tolerance. Several promising products are in development phase in both IRS and mosquito nets. On the other hand, the problem of tolerance to antimalarials is also occurring repeatedly. In recent years, protozoa resistant to artemisinin has been reported in five countries, Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam, in the large Mekong region, which has been reported to be effective for multimodal-resistant tropical falciparum malaria. For this reason, in September 2014 the WHO's Malaria Policy Advisory Committee (MPAC) recommended that the target to eliminate tropical fever malaria from this area be adopted by 2030, and in May the following year, A malaria removal strategy (2015 - 2030) in the area was started.
Aiming for Zero Malaria
Children lost by malaria still at a rate of one in two, while measures against malaria in the past fifteen years have produced great results not far in public health history. According to UN estimates, more than 6.2 million lives have been saved and the number of children losing their lives in malaria has been reduced by over 50%. Now we have the opportunity to achieve eliminating malaria from this world that seemed to be impossible at the time.
Malaria and UHC
In order to achieve zero malaria, policies must be in place to ensure that all people have access to health-qualified services, including prevention, diagnosis and treatment of malaria. Whether or not you can access malaria diagnosis as soon as there is a fever involves life and death. To that end, it is necessary to strengthen the health system and take measures against malaria that no one will miss. At the same time, it is also important to take advantage of lessons learned from countermeasures against malaria, such as prevention, cross-sectoral approaches and innovation, to achieve UHC.
Malaria and SDGs
Goal 3 of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) is to eliminate the epidemic of malaria by 2030, but it is listed in the SDGs to reduce malaria's illness and eliminate malaria It is relevant to most goals. Malaria is the cause of development being delayed, and it is also the result at the same time. Also, in order to achieve zero malaria it is vital that partners across borders and sectors be together to tackle inequality issues, which is exactly what SDGs is aiming for.
At the 9 th East Asia Summit held in Myanmar in November 2014, the Asia-Pacific leaders including Prime Minister Abe agreed to realize the Asia-Pacific without malaria by 2030.